General Studies – 1998 (Main) (Paper – I)

Time Allowed : Three Hours                                                             Maximum Marks : 300

Candidates should attempt questions from all the Section I, II, and III. The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.


Did Jawaharlal Nehru really ‘speak’ the ‘language’ of Gandhi? Locate the points of their agreements and departures.
How did economic nationalism mirror the work of the early nationalist leadership in India?
(About 250 words) 35

2. Answer any two of the following :                                                                           15 x 2 =30
(About 150 words on each)

(a) Why did the moderates lose appeal with the Indians and failed to elicit desired response from the British?

(b) How did the Policy of free trade hurt Indian textile industry and crafts in the latter half of the 19th century?

(c) Trace the origins of the R.N.I. Mutiny and evaluate its impact on the political situation in India.

3. Answer any three of the following :                                                                         10 x 3 =30
(About 75 words on each)

(a) Examine the ideas of Rabindranath Tagore on democracy.

(b) How did the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal influence the nationalist politics?

(c) What was the significance of the Prajamandal movements in the Indian States in the decade preceding India’s independence?

(d) Assess the role of C. Rajagopalachari during the pre-partition years of Indian public life.

4. (a) What do you know about the following :           2 x 15 =30
(About 20 words on each)
(i) Nil Darpan                        (ii) Sarda Sadan
(iii) Sabarmati Ashram           (iv) Hunter Commission
(v) Bandi Jiwan

(b) Why have the following become famous?
(vi) Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan
(vii) Seth Jamanlal Bajaj           (viii) S. Satyamurti
(ix) Udham Singh                     (x) Sarojini Naidu

(c) Write about the chief fatures of the following :
(xi) Kulu School           (xii) Gopuram
(xiii) Wahabi Movement
(xiv) Bharat Dharma Mahamandal
(xv) Communal Award

5. Examine the reasons for the non-introduction of Women’s Reservation Bill in the LokSabha.
(About 250 words) 35
Discuss the implications of Israel’s expansion plan. How have the major western powers reacted to it ?    (About 250 words)

6. Attempt any three of the following :                                                                         10 x 3 =30
(About 100 words on each)

(a) Examine the fall out of population explosion in India at the close of twentieth century.

(b) Discuss the justification for the creation of new states in U.P. and Bihir.

(c) What are the reasons for the slow progress of SAPTA?

(d) Describe the problem of KOSOVO.

(e) What is ASEAN PLUS? What is its nature and duty?

7. Attempt any five of following :                                                                                  6 x 5 =30
(About 50 words on each)

(a) What were the circumstances leading to the promulgation of Prasar Bharati ordinance in August 1998?

(b) Who has claimed the responsibility for the recent bomb attacks on American embassies at Nairobi and Dar Es Salam? What are their demands?

(c) What is the significance of Pope John Paul II’s visit to Cuba?

(d) What are the significant features of Lokpal Bill recently introduced in the Lok Sabha?

(e) Why was a variant of Basmati rice in news recently?

(f) What solution has been arrived at recently in the Cauvery water dispute?

(g) Bring out the issues involved in the appointments and transfer of judges of the Supreme Court and high Courts in India.

8. (a) Explain the following :                                                                                       2 x 15 =30
(About 20 words on each)
(i) Netizens        (ii) Shehab-3       (iii) Planet-B
(iv) W.H.O.      (v) Greenpeace

(b) What do you know about the following?
(vi) Chattisgarh      (vii) Article 356      (viii) Bentota
(ix) Narmada Sagar dam     (x) Full monty
(xi) Pamirs            (xii) Nelson Mandela
(xiii) Bacharuddin Jusul Habibie
(xiv) E.M.S. Namboodripad.      (xv) Jnanpith Award

9. The total population of a country is 357 million of which 62 million live in urban areas. Of these who live in rural areas, 234 million are agriculturists including 124 million earning members. Among the urban population, 12 million are agriculturists of which 7 million are earning members. Among the non-agriculturist rural population 43 million are earning are earning members whereas among non-agriculturist urban people 14 million are non-earning members.
Represent the above information in a tabular form.                                                                    12

10. (a) The following table shows annual profits (Rs. in crores) of two investment companies A and B during the given 5 years :                                       
1993         1994        1995          1996          1997
A :       70             60            70              60              70
B :       60             50            60              80               80
If someone plans to invest Rs. 50,000, which of the two companies should be preferred and
why ?                                                                                                                                        8

(b) An investor bought shares of a company at a premium of Rs. 20. If the par value of the share is Rs. 120 and the company declares 21% dividend in a given year, find the rate of interest received by the investor.

11. (a) Mention, in each of the following cases, the most appropriate diagram to represent the data :                                                                                                                                         5
(i) Number of AIDS patients in a country detected during the last 10 years.
(ii) Monthly production of eggs in a poultry farm in a given yaer.
(iii) Yearly export and import (in dollars) of a multinational firm during the period from 1990 to 1997.
(iv) Distribution of weights of 500 school children in the age group 15-18 years.
(v) Political party-wise percentage of votes cast during a parliamentary election.

(b) The following table shows the IQ scores of adolescents aged 15-17 years:



121 and above


















80and below


Find :
(i) the cut-off point above which 25% most intelligent adolescents fall.
(ii) the cut-off point below which the 25% least intelligent adolescents fall.                                  8

12. (a) State whether the following statements are true or false.
Give reasons.                                                                                                                          6
(i) A person’s monthly income first increases by 20% and then decreases by 20% . There is no net change in his income.
(ii) All facts expressed numerically pertain to statistics.
(iii) If A stands 50 % change of getting through Test I and Test II independently, then A stands at least 50 % chance of getting through both the tests.

(b) The following is the series of index numbers taking 1992 as base year :
Year :-      1992       1993      1994     1995     1996      1997
Index :-      100         120        135        170       180       210
How would the index numbers be changed if 1993 is taken as base year?

General Studies – 1998 (Main) (Paper – II)

Time Allowed : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 300

Candidates should attempt questions from all the Section I, II, and III. The number of marks carried by each question is indicated at the end of the question.


1. (a)
Briefly state the stages through which the present position of the Directive Principles 
vis-�-vis the Fundamental Rights has emerged.      (About 250 words) 40

(b) Explain the concept of �Prime Ministerial Government� and account for its decline in recent times in India.          (About 250 words) 40

2. (a) �The past 50 years of development in India were characterised by planning but the next 50 years of development would be led by the market.� Comment. (About 250 words) 40

(b) How is absolute poverty line measured? What are the important measures taken by the Government to eradicate rural poverty in India?             (About 250 words) 40

3. (a) What is remote sensing? What are its uses especially in the Indian context?                 (About 250 words) 40
What is genetic engineering? Why is it getting increasingly important these days ?     
(About 250 words) 40

4. Answer any TWO of the following :-
(Answer to each question should be in about 150 words)                            20+20

(a) Highlight the significance of the Seventy-third Amendment to the Constitution of India.

(b) How are the States formed in India? Why have the demands of separate States like those of Vidarbha, Telangana etc. not been considered by the Government recently?

(c) On what grounds the Legislative Councils are justified? How is it created or abolished in a State?

(d) Differentiate and state the significance of general election, mid-term election and by-election.

5. Answer any TWO of the following :-
(Answer to each question should be in about 150 words)                                20+20

(a) What are the main reasons for industrial sickness in India? How can it be overcome?

(b) �Infrastructure bottlenecks continue to stifle the economic growth in India.� Comment.

(c) Comment on the view that Monetary Policy in India is used more as a stabilisation device rather than as a development tool.

(d) What has been the role of NRIs in the economic development of India in the recent past?

6. Answer any TWO of the following :-
(Answer to each question should be in about 150 words)                            15+15

(a) What are the geo-economic causes of underdevelopment of various regions in India?

(b) Which parts of India have been identified as draughtprone? Mention the norms for such identification.

(c) Describe the changes that have taken place in the direction of international trade of India since independence.

(d) How do the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep differ in the geological ecvolution and topographical conditions?

7. Answer any TWO of the following :-
(Answer to each question should be in about 150 words)                   20+20

(a) Describe the development of Super-computers in India.

(b) How does the development of Pinaka benefit India?

(c) What are optical fibres? What are their advantages?

(d) What are enzymes? What is their importance?

8. Answer FOUR questions from Group A, THREE from Group B and THREE from Group C :-
(Answer to each question should be in about 25 words)                  10×3=30

What is meant by Mutual Fund?

(b) Explain per capita income as a measure of economic growth.

(c) What is meant by �Quality of life�?

(d) What constitutes a Minor Irrigation Project?

(e) What is meant by Environmental Impact Assessment?

(f) What is the difference between Gross National Product and Net National Product?

(a) What is meant by �Protem Speaker�?

(b) Point out the constitution and functions of the Central Vigilance Commission.

(c) State the amplitude of Art. 21 of the Constitution.

(d) Which of the cases regarding disqualifications for Membership of either House of Parliament are decided by the President?

(e) Differentiate between Parliamentary Secretary and Lok Sabha Secretary.

(f) What is a Privilege Motion?

(a) Why are transgenic organisms important?

(b) State the importance of Antrix Corporation.

(c) Why is Website getting popular?

(d) What do the following stand for?
(i) C-CAD                 (ii)ICMR                     (iii) TRAI

(e) Give the functions of interferons.

(f) What is the difference between E-mail and Fax?

ilook website

Categories:UPSC;Tags: , , , , , , , , , , ,



  1. No Comment yet. Be the first to comment...
Leave your comment here: