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DSC Perspectives in Education Study Material


AP DSC Perspectives in education Syllabus Study Material Model Question Papers

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PERSPECTIVES IN EDUCATION syllabus ::

1. History of Education

2. Teacher Empowerment

3. Educational Concerns in Contemporary India

4. Acts / Rights

5. National Curriculum Framework, 2005

HISTORY OF EDUCATION STUDY MATERIAL (Pre-Vedic and Post-Vedic period, Medieval Education, Recommendations of various committees during British period)

History of Education is of fundamental importance to a professional teacher.

  • India has a long history of organized education. The Gurukul system of education is one of the oldest on earth but before that the guru shishya system was extant, in which students were taught orally and the data would be passed from one generation to the next.
  • Gurukuls were traditional Hindu residential schools of learning; typically the teacher’s house or a monastery. Education was free (and often limited to the higher castes), but students from well-to-do families payed Gurudakshina, a voluntary contribution after the completion of their studies.
  • At the Gurukuls, the teacher imparted knowledge of Religion, Scriptures, Philosophy, Literature, Warfare, Statecraft, Medicine,Astrology and “History” (“Itihaas” — actually mythology).
  •  Only students belonging to Brahmin and Kshatriya communities were taught in these Gurukuls. However, the advent of Buddhism and Jainism brought fundamental changes in access to education with their democratic character.
  • The first millennium and the few centuries preceding it saw the flourishing of higher education at Nalanda, Takshashila University, Ujjain, & Vikramshila Universities. Art, Architecture, Painting, Logic, Grammar, Philosophy, Astronomy, Literature, Buddhism, Hinduism, Arthashastra (Economics & Politics), Law, and Medicine were among the subjects taught and each university specialized in a particular field of study. Takshila specialized in the study of medicine, while Ujjain laid emphasis on astronomy.
  •  Nalanda, being the biggest centre, handled all branches of knowledge, and housed up to 10,000 students at its peak.
  • British records show that education was widespread in the 18th century, with a school for every temple, mosque or village in most regions of the country. The subjects taught included Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Theology, Law, Astronomy, Metaphysics, Ethics, Medical Science and Religion. The schools were attended by students representative of all classes of society.
  • Traditional structures were not recognized by the British government and have been on the decline since.
  • Gandhi is said to have described the traditional educational system as a beautiful tree that was destroyed during the British rule.
  •  The village pathshalas were often housed in shabby dwellings and taught by ill-qualified teachers. Instruction was limited mainly to the three Rs and the native mahajanilzamindari accounts. Printed books were not used, and most writing was done on palm leaf, plantain leaf, or on sand. There was no fixed class routine, timetable, or school calendar. There was no annual examination, pupils being promoted whenever the guru was satisfied of the scholar’s attainments. There were no desks, benches,blackboards, or fixed seating arrangements. The decline probably started in the mid- 1700s.
  • By the 1820s neither the village schools nor the tols or madrasas were the vital centers of learning. In 1823, Raja Rammohan Roy wrote to the governor-general, Lord Amherst, requesting that he not spend government funds on starting a Sanskrit College in Calcutta but rather employ “European Gentlemen of talent and education to instruct the natives of India in Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Anatomy and other useful sciences.“The current system of education, with its western style and content, was introduced & founded by the British in the 20th century, following recommendations by Macaulay.
    Up to the 17th century

    • The first millennium and the few centuries preceding it saw the flourishing of higher education at Nalanda, Takshila, Ujjain, & Vikramshila Universities. Art, Architecture, Painting, Logic, Grammar, Philosophy, Astronomy, Literature, Buddhism, Hinduism, Arthashastra (Economics & Politics), Law, and Medicine were among the subjects taught and each university specialized in a particular field of study. Takshila specialized in the study of medicine, while Ujjain laid emphasis on astronomy. Nalanda, being the biggest centre, handled all branches of knowledge, and housed up to 10,000 students at its peak.

    Education under British Rule

    • British records show that indigenous education was widespread in the 18th century, with a school for every temple, mosque or village in most regions of the country. The subjects taught included Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Theology, Law, Astronomy, Metaphysics, Ethics, Medical Science and Religion. The schools were attended by students representative of all classes of society.
    • But scholars have questioned the validity of such an argument. They argue that proponents of indigenous education fail to recognize the importance of the widespread use of printed books in the West since the sixteenth century, which led to a remarkable advancement of knowledge. Printed books were not used in Indian schools till the 1820s or even later.
    • There were institutions such as Gresham’s college in London that encouraged scientific learning. In fact, there were a number of such academic and scientific societies in England, often supported by Puritan and non-Conformist merchants, the like of which probably did not exist in India. The entire claim of indigenous education proponents is based on the thesis advocated by Dharampal which says that there was a general decline in Indian society and economy with the coming of British rule. In the process, indigenous education suffered.
    • This, however, is too broad a generalization, and the exact impact of British rule on different regions at different times has to be studied more carefully before we conclude that the curve everywhere steadily declined. He argues that pre-British schools and colleges were maintained by grants of revenue-free land. The East India Company, with its policy of maximizing land revenue, stopped this and thus starved the Indian education system of its financial resources.

    The current system of education, with its western style and content, was introduced & funded by the British in the 19th century, following recommendations by Macaulay. Traditional structures were not recognized by the British government and have been on the decline since. Gandhi is said to have described the traditional educational system as a beautiful tree that was destroyed during British rule

After Independence
After independence, education became the responsibility of the states. The Central Government’s only obligation was to co-ordinate in technical and higher education and specify standards. This continued till 1976, when the education became a joint responsibility of the state and the Centre.

Expenditure on Education in India

  • The Government expenditure on Education has greatly increased since the First five year plan.
  • The Government of India has highly subsidized higher education.
  •  Nearly 97% of the Central Government expenditure on elementary education goes towards the  payment of teachers’ salaries.

Main events in Education

  •  1935: Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) set up.
  •  1976: Education made a joint responsibility of the states and the Centre.
  •  1986: National Policy on Education (NPE) and Programme of Action (PoA)
  •  1992: Revised National Policy on Education (NPE) and Programme of Action (PoA)
  •  December 17, 1998: The Assam Government enacts a law making ragging in educational institutions a criminal offence.
  •  November 1998: Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee announces setting up of Vidya Vahini Network to link up universities, UGC and CSIR.
  •  September 2006: Education Reforms In India

RIGHT TO FREE AND COMPULSORY EDUCATION ACT, 2009 STUDY MATERIAL

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14 Comments to “DSC Perspectives in Education Study Material”

  1. D.Shobharani says:

    which publication is best for getting more marks frm dis subject plz reply to me.is there any recommended book fr Dsc?

  2. s says:

    please forward important tips to write dsc and give material of english assistent

  3. Vijaykumar. K says:

    it will be useful to telugu medium students if u provide the material in telugu

  4. Y.Ravikumar says:

    please social school assistant model papers-12 in net.

  5. musham anuradha says:

    i request u to provide it in pdf format .thank you.

  6. sabbani thirupathi says:

    thank q for giving a good information about p in e .pls try to give it in pdf format.

  7. k.bikshapati says:

    please send me modal school pgt botany compitetion in 5th zone for sc candidates

  8. Hema says:

    its better if u give in pdf format, and thank u very much for giving assistance

  9. rafi says:

    teacher empowerment material please

  10. sravanthi says:

    is this enough for dsc……..

  11. chinna master says:

    thank u

  12. girija rani says:

    very clearly given by marking important points. its better if you can post it in pdf format

  13. venkatesh says:

    very good the way you presented is nice to have clear idea to all the dsc candidates

  14. k.sharath says:

    Its bettter to post in pdf form na

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