SCIENCE – CONTENT
1. Measurements: Units and Different Systems –C.G.S., M.K.S., S.I. Triangulation method for measuring long distances, Measurement of Length,
Area, Volume, Mass, Density and Time. Fundamental and Derived units. Measuring instruments – Scale, Tape, Vernier Calipers, Different types of clocks,
2. Natural Resources – Air, Water: Water pollution, Harnessing of water, States of water, Hardness of water, water pressure Air pollution, Atmospheric Pressure, Air pressure, Archimedes’ principle, Pascal’s law, Bernoulli’s Principle, Hydrometer, Barometer. Laws of floatation, Specific gravity, Surface tension, Fluid Mechanics.
3. Our Universe: Constellation – Zodiac, Space travel; Solar system, Satellites, stars, comets; Earth- layers of earth.
4. Natural Phenomenon: Light: Rectilinear propagation of Light, Shadows, transparent and opaque materials; reflection, Laws of reflection, refraction, Reflection at spherical mirrors, refractive index of glass slab
Sound: Sources of sound, Transmission of sound, Sound Pollution, Waves, Kinds of Waves, Wave Propagation, Musical instruments. Heat: Heat and Temperature, Measurement of Temperature and Thermometer, Change of State due to heat
5. Mechanics – Kinematics, Dynamics: Scalar and Vectors. Types of Motion; Speed, Velocity, Acceleration, Newton’s Laws of Motion,
Friction, Momentum, Principals of Conservation, Centre of Gravity, State of Equilibrium.
6. Magnetism and Electricity: Magnetism: Natural Magnets and Artificial Magnets, properties of Magnets, Magnetic Induction, uses of Magnets, Methods of Magnetisation.
Electricity: Circuit Connection-Components, Primary Cells, Charge; Effects of Electric Current (Light, Heat, Magnetic), Primary Cells, Current Flow, Heating and Magnetic Effects of an Electric Current, Series, Parallel connections, Symbols of Electrical Elements, Modern World Instrument.
Information and Communication Technology, Computers.
7. Matter-Its changes: Elements and Compounds, Symbols, Formulae, Chemical Equations
- Action of heat on substances, Physical and Chemical changes, types of chemical changes
- Preparation of Gases (Oxygen, Hydrogen, Carbon- Di-Oxide, Chlorine, Hydrogen Chloride)
- Acids, Basis, Salt.
- Water and its constituents. Hardness of water. Sulphur, Nitrogen, Phosphorous and their compounds. Common salt and its constituents.
8. Laws of Chemical Combination and Chemical Calculations: Laws of chemical combination, Calculations based on chemical equations.
9. Biology: Its importance in everyday life, contribution of scientists, different branches.
10. Living World – Characteristics: Classification of Plants and Animals and their characteristics.
a) Cell: Concept, Cell theory, differences between Plant cell and Animal cell, Cell division.
b) Tissues – Animal tissues.
11. Plant World – Types of plants: Parts of a plant – their functions Reproduction – Asexual, Sexual, Vegetative propagation, Nutrition,
Photosynthesis, Excretion, Respiration Economic importance of Plants, Agriculture, Crop diseases & pest control measure.
12. Animal World: Organ systems and their functions including man Digestive system, Respiratory system, Circulatory system, Excretory system, Nervous system, Reproductive system, Sense organs in man, Nutrition Deficiency diseases in man, First Aid Economic importance of Animals, Animal husbandry, Pisciculture, Sericulture.
13. Microbes:Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoan useful and harmful, microbial diseases in plants & animals
14. Our Environment: Biotic & Abiotic factors, Natural resources
15. Recent trends in Biology: -Hybridization, Genetic engineering, Gene banks, Gene therapy,Tissue culture