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## ELECTRICAL STUDY MATERIAL | CONTROL SYSTEMS BASIC DEFINITIONS

INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEMS | CONTROL SYSTEMS | BASIC DEFINITIONS | CONTROL SYSTEMS STUDY NOTES | CONTROL SYSTEMS STUDY MATERIAL | CONTROL SYSTEMS MATERIAL | STUDY MATERIAL | MATERIAL | CONTROL SYSTEMS ONLINE TUTORIAL | TUTORIAL | CONTROL SYSTEMS TUTORIAL | CONTROL SYSTEMS DEFINITIONS | DEFINITIONS | ELECTRICAL STUDY MATERIAL | STUDY MATERIAL

INTRODUCTION TO CONTROL SYSTEMS

BASIC DEFINITIONS

WHAT IS CONTROL SYSTEM: ?

Control  System means  any  quantity  of  interest  in  a machine  or mechanism  is maintained  or  altered  in accordance with desired manner.

OR

A system which controls the output quantity is called a control system

BASIC DEFINITIONS :

1.  Controlled Variable:
It is the quantity or condition that is measured & controlled.

2.  Controller:
Controller means measuring  the  value of  the controlled variable of  the  system &  applying  the manipulated  variable  to  the  system  to  correct  or  to  limit  the  deviation  of  the measured  value  to  the desired value.

3.  Plant:
A  plant  is  a  piece  of  equipment,  which  is  a  set  of  machine  parts  functioning  together.  The purpose of which is to perform a particular operation.    Example:   Furnace, Space craft etc.,

4.  System:
A system is a combination of components that works together & performs certain objective.

5.  Disturbance:
A disturbance is a signal that tends to affect the value of the output of a system. If a disturbance is created inside the system, it is called  internal. While an external disturbance is generated outside the
system.

6.  Feedback Control:
It is an operation that, in the presence of disturbance tends to reduce the difference between the output of a system & some reference input.

7.  Servo Mechanism:
A  servo mechanism  is  a  feedback  controlled  system  in  which  the  output  is  some mechanical position, velocity or acceleration.

8.  Open loop System:
In an Open loop System, the control action is independent of the desired output.

OR

When  the output quantity of  the control system  is not  fed back  to  the  input quantity,  the control system is called an Open loop System.

9.  Closed loop System:
In the Closed  loop Control System the control action is dependent on the desired output, where the output quantity is considerably controlled by sending a command signal to input quantity.

10.  Feed Back:
Normally,  the feed back signal has opposite polarity  to  the  input signal. This  is called negative feed back. The advantage  is  the resultant signal obtained  from  the comparator being difference of  the two signals is of smaller magnitude. It can be handled easily by the control system. The resulting signal is called Actuating Signal E(S). This signal has zero value when the desired output is obtained. In that condition, control system will not operate.

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